Timeline of contraception Essay
Contraception has existed for many years, only that the methods have changed with time. In 1550 BC, they used to mix dates, acacia and honey to make a paste, smear it over wool and use it as a pessary to prevent conception. In the 1700s, more experiments were conducted. Casanova’s memoirs show how he used sheep bladder as condoms or half a lemon which acted as a cervical cap. In the 1800s more people became aware of contraception, but the idea was not that welcomed. Technology to vulcanize rubber and make condoms were invented, but there was also the ban against contraception. Margaret Sanger opened a family planning clinic but it was shut down within ten days. After a while, the Anglican Bishops allowed limited use of contraception. That was probably what paved the way for the development of the pill, which at first was used for therapeutic purposes. Later on, married couples were allowed to use contraceptives. By 2000s, a lot of women were on the pill, and more methods of contraception were invented. Right now people are open to contraception, which is actually viewed as a good thing. (TIME 2010)
Compare and contrast male and female condoms:
The female condom is lubricated and has two sides, with one side open and the other side closed. It works by trapping sperms into the pouch. The male condom is commonly made of latex, and it’s slipped over the penis to trap sperms so that they don’t get into the woman’s vagina. The male condom is easier to use than the female condom, making women prefer the male condom more. Their effectiveness depends on individual use, as a female condom can slip further into the vagina or the male condom can break.
Timeline of contraception Essay
The female condom has advantages such as it is readily available at the local chemist even without a prescription, once the technique is learned it’s easy to insert, stays in plays even after losing the erection and it allows women to be responsible and protect themselves from STI’s and HIV. The disadvantages, however, include it slipping into the vagina during sexual intercourse, the outer ring may irritate the vagina while the inner ring may also irritate the penis, and some argue that the pleasure is reduced.
The male condom is highly effective when used properly, it is not hormonal and sensation is increased with the use of a lubricant. On the downside, some people are allergic to latex, the condom might slip or break during sexual intercourse, may decrease sensation, and a new one is used with each sexual act which can also interfere with spontaneity. The male condoms are widely used and acknowledged in most communities, however, the female condoms not so much, especially where people feel that men should take the lead role when it comes to matters sex. (Kulczycki, Kim, & Duerr 2016)
Cervical mucus and ovulation:
Cervical mucus is a fluid secreted by the cervix, which is stimulated by the hormone estrogen. The mucus nourishes and protects the sperm in the female reproductive tract as it goes to meet the sperm. The production of the mucus fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle, with the amount and quality used to predict fertile days in the cycle. During ovulation, more estrogen is produced which results in more cervical mucus. The benefits of using a natural method of contraception include highly effective when used properly, requires no cost, there is no medication used therefore no side effects, women become more aware of their reproductive system enabling them to recognize any abnormalities and the method is also acceptable in all cultures. The disadvantages are for it to work the couple should be in agreement, the method does not offer protection against STI’s, it requires training and careful observation which is very time consuming and also if not properly executed, it’s bound to fail. (American Pregnancy Association 2017)
Timeline of contraception Essay
Male and female sterilization:
In males, sterilization involves vasectomy which is a permanent method of birth control. There are two techniques involved when performing a vasectomy. The no-scalpel vasectomy involves using a small needle to inject anesthesia into the skin, and the no needle vasectomy involves using a piston-like instrument to force anesthetic into the tissues. After anesthetizing the area, a small opening of few millimeters is created in the skin of the scrotal sac which locates the vas deferens. The vans are ligated or cauterized. A backup method of contraception is required for a few months as follow up tests are done to ensure the success of the procedure. (ARHP)
Tubal ligation is the female version, and it is a much more expensive and complex as compared to vasectomy. The sterilization should be performed by the doctor. This too requires anesthesia and the abdomen is inflated with gas, after which a small incision is made to access the reproductive organs with the use of a laparoscope. The fallopian tubes are sealed either by cutting and folding the tubs, removing sections of the tubes or blocking the tubes with bands or clips. There is also a nonsurgical sterilization which involves inserting two tiny metal coils into the fallopian tube through the vagina and cervix. Eventually, scar tissues are formed around the coils and blocks the tubes.
“A Brief History of Birth Control.” Time, Time Inc., 3 May 2010, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1983970,00.html.
Kulczycki, Andrzej, et al. “The Acceptability of the Female and Male Condom: A Randomized Crossover Trial.” Guttmacher Institute, 6 Dec. 2016, www.guttmacher.org/journals/psrh/2004/acceptability-female-and-male-condom-randomized-crossover-trial.
“Cervical Mucus and Your Fertility.” American Pregnancy Association, 30 Nov. 2017, americanpregnancy.org/getting-pregnant/cervical-mucus/
“Male Sterilization.” Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, www.arhp.org/Publications-and-Resources/Quick-Reference-Guide-for-Clinicians/choosing/Male-sterilization.
Thomas, MD Liji. “Natural Family Planning: Advantages and Disadvantages.” News-Medical.net, 3 Aug. 2017, www.news-medical.net/health/Natural-Family-Planning-Advantages-and-Disadvantages.aspx.
“Willow Women’s Clinic.” Willow Womens Clinic RSS, www.willowclinic.ca/?page_id=9.
Stroud, Kayla. “Best birth control options for college students.” The Spectator, 7 Oct. 2015, www.vsuspectator.com/2015/10/06/best-birth-control-options-for-college-students/.